NGSS/ NJ-SLS (Student Learning Standards) - Science
Students are assessed in Science through a series of tiered, performance-based tasks, with each standard bundled in the investigation of an anchoring phenomenon.
Performance-Based Tasks
Performance-based tasks are the most effective measurement of student growth toward a learning standard in our bundled model of instruction. These types of tasks are inclusive of formative assessment points interpreted as small or individual activities. Each bundled standard is associated with a specific task and therefore multiple assessments are assembled to measure, in greater detail the strengths and weaknesses in  a student's performance. 

Rather than taking a test at the end of a unit, students are assessed on each performance task during the instructional experience equaling 10 academic points per activity.  Activities requiring a greater amount of resources may incur a score multiplier.
Scoring Explanation:
Students demonstrating mastery beyond the performance expectations receives a score of 10 points. If a student can perform all expectations without assistance they will achieve a score of 9.5.  Students meeting the performance expectation with some assistance will achieve a score of 8.5.Achieving the performance expectations with direct guidance achieves a score of 7.5. Students struggling with performance expectations even with direct guidance achieve a score of 6.5. There are increments of every scoring range possible.
Students failing to submit an assessment for evaluation receive a score of 5.5.

In Our Classroom
Schoology provides students with a framework of performance-based tasks that address the 3D's of NGSS science. Assignments are provided with a rubric that highlights the expected criteria. Performances are evaluated on a scale of 1-4, with an academic value of 1/6.5 - 2/7.5 - 3/8.5 - 4/9.5. A score of 10 is possible for students exceeding the performance expectation and demonstrating an understanding beyond anticipated growth. An academic score of 55 is also possible for students failing to demonstrate the standard at any assessment point, typically due to a failure of the students participate in any assessment point.  As a parent, you can track a child's performance on a standard or unit by using the Parent Portal. Students failing to submit an assignment on time will receive a score of 6.5 or lower until submitted.
Behavioral Expectations
Students are evaluated in three behavioral areas and that score is provided in the parent portal under a separate tab.  Students are assessed on a scale of 1- 4 in relation to established, experiential grade-level norms, whereas a score of one means students actions are well below the behavior expectation, two, students are progressing toward the norm, three, the student behaviors are grade-level appropriate and finally four, their behaviors exceeded grade-level expectations.  The three targeted behavior areas determined by a committee are, Preparedness for Class, Behaviors the Support Learning and Assignments.  It is determined by the individual teacher how to best assess these targeted areas.
There is a standardized assessment in Science offered in 5th, 8th and 11th grade. It is the New Jersey Learning Standard Assessment - Science or abbreviated NJSLA-S.  If you choose to preview the questions, there is a recurring theme identifying evidence to support a claim.
Can all things
be seen?

In contrast to a phenomenon, a noumenon cannot be directly observed.

See an example of a noumenon in the photo below.